The paper analyzes why South Korea, a war-torn and poverty-stricken country, succeeded in building a modern state in a single generation under the most trying circumstances. Despite its remarkable success, there are conflicting views on contemporary Korea: common liberal perspectives tend to focus on its deviances from democracy. The author develops a theoretical perspective on nation building which assumes that a new nation lacks the basic infrastructure of a modern state and therefore the primary task of leadership is to build this infrastructure security, economy, and democracy. It is assumed that many constraints as well as multiple challenges exist in nation building, but a step-by-step approach is necessary. In terms of a comparative historical perspective based on the nation-building of early modernizers, those nations experienced a centralization of power, a buildup of a standing army and economic growth, and democratization occurred gradually. The paper then analyzes how South Korea’s nation building is similar to those early modernizers in terms of sequential achievement in the order of security, economic growth, and democratization. Witnessing a looming failure of the U.S. policy of democracy promotion in Iraq, the approach has important theoretical implications for those who struggle with the lingering problems of many Third World nations.
Armstrong, Charles K. 2003. The North Korean Revolution, 1945-50. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Ayoob, Mohammed. 1995. The Third World Security Predicament: State Making, Regional Conflict, and the International System. Boulder: Rienner.
Azar, Edward E., and Chung-in Moon, eds. 1988. National Security in the Third World: The Management of Internal and External Threats. Boulder: Rienner.
Bagehot, Walter. 1949. The English Constitution. London: Watts.
Beilin, Yossi. 1993. Israel: A Concise Political History. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Benjamin, Roger, and Raymond Duvall. 1985. The Capitalist State in Context. In The Democratic State, eds. Roger Benjamin and Stephen L. Elkin, 19- 57. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Brazinsky, Gregg. 2007. Nation Building in South Korea. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Breuer, William B. 1996. Shadow Warriors: The Covert War in Korea. New York: John Wiley.
Bull, George. 1961. The Prince. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Bullard, Monte R. 1997. The Soldier and the Citizen: The Role of the Military in Taiwan’s Development. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Buzan, Barry. 1991. People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. Boulder: Rienner.
Chan, Heng Chee. 1985. Singapore. In Military—Civilian Relations in South East Asia, eds. Z. H. Ahmad and H. Crouch. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Cho, Soon Sung. 1963. Korea in World Politics, 1940-1950. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Clark, George. 1961. The Seventeenth Century. New York: Norton.
Cumings, Bruce. 1973. The Origins of the Korean War: Liberation and the Emergence of Separate Regimes, 1945-1947 (Volume II). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Dong-a ilbo. 1975. Siryeon kwa yeongkwang ui minjok-sa (History of the Trials and Glories of the Nation). Seoul.
Dumont, Paul. 1984. The Origins of Kemalist Ideology. In Atatürk and the Modernization of Turkey, ed. Jacob M. Landau, 25-44. Boulder: Westview.
Duus, Peter. 1976. The Rise of Modern Japan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Editorial Committee on War History. 1981. Hanguk jeonjaeng-sa (History of the Korean War) Vol. I. Seoul: Editorial Committee on War History, Ministry of National Defense.
Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS). 1945. “Benninghoff to State Department.” September 15, FRUS 1945, Vol. 6, 1049.
Frankel, Richard E. 2005. Bismarck’s Shadow. New York: Berg.
Fukuyama, Francis. 2004. State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. 1961. The Federalist Papers 52. New York: New American Library.
Han, Sung-Joo. 1974. The Failure of Democracy in South Korea. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Haslam, Jonathan. 1997. Russian Archival Revelations and Our Understanding of the Cold War. Diplomatic History 21:1.
Hastings, Max. 1991. The Korean War. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hayashi, Takeshi. 1981. The Modernization of Japan and Turkey. In Atatürk: Founder of a Modern State, eds. Ali Kazancigil and Ergun Özbudun, 221-34. Hamden: Archon Books.
Henderson, Gregory. 1968. Korea: The Politics of Vortex. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Hollingsworth, J. Rogers. 1971. Introduction. In Nation and State Building in America. ed. J. Rogers Hollingsworth, 1-9. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Horowitz, Dan. 1993. The Israeli Concept of National Security. In National Security and Democracy in Israel, ed. Avner Yaniv. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1971. Political Modernization: America vs. Europe. In Nation and State Building in America, ed. J. Rogers Hollingsworth, 27-62. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Hwang, Byung-Jun. 1971. Industrial Economy of Korea. Seoul: Korea University Asiatic Research Center.
Ike, Nobutaka. 1968. War and Modernization. In Political Development in Modern Japan, ed. Robert E. Ward, 189-211. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
ISD Report. 2003. Sustaining Global Democratization: Nation Building and Intervention. February, Georgetown University.
Kim, Choong Nam. 2007a. The Korean Presidents: Leadership for Nation Building. Norwalk: EastBridge.
Kim, Choong Nam. 2007b. Leadership for Nation Building: The Case of Korean Presidents. International Journal of Korean Studies XI (1):113-43.
Kim, Hyung-Kook. 1995. The Division of Korea and the Alliance Making Process. New York: University Press of America.
Kim, Kwang Suk, and Joon-Kyung Kim. 1997. Korean Economic Development: An Overview. In The Korean Economy, 1945-1995, eds. Dong-Se Cha, Kwang Suk Kim, and Dwight H. Perkins, 3-56. Seoul: Korea Development Institute.
Kim, Quee-Young. 1983. The Fall of Syngman Rhee. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley.
Kothari, Rajni, ed. 1976. State and Nation Building. New Delhi: Allied Publishers.
Krueger, Anne O. 1979. The Developmental Role of the Foreign Sector and Aid. Cambridge: Harvard University Council on East Asian Studies.
Lankov, Andrei. 2002. From Stalin to Kim Il Sung: The Formation of North Korea, 1945-1960. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Latham, Michael. 2000. Modernization as Ideology: American Social Sciences and ‘Nation Building’ in the Kennedy Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Lee, Chong-Sik. 2006. Keonguk daetongnyong uiroseoui Yi Seung-Man (Syngman Rhee as Founding President). In Yi Seungman daetongnyong jaepyeongga (Reevaluation of President Syngman Rhee), ed. Young-ick Lew, 17-45. Seoul: Yonsei University Press.
Lee, Kuan Yew. 1998. The Singapore Story: Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew. Singapore: Prentice Hall.
Lee, Kuan Yew. 2000. From Third World to First. New York: Harper Collins.
Lippmann, Walter. 1943. U.S. Foreign Policy: Shield of the Republic. New York: Pocket Books.
Lipset, Seymour M. 1959. Some Social Requisites of Democracy. American Political Science Review 53.
Lipset, Seymour M. 1975. The Crisis of Legitimacy. In Nation and State Building in America, ed. J. Rogers Hollingsworth, 65-87. Boston: Little, Brown & Company.
McCune, George M. 1950. Korea Today. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
MacDonald, Donald S. 1992. U.S.—Korea Relations from Liberation to Selfreliance. Boulder: Westview.
Machiavelli, Niccolò. 1950. The Prince and the Discourse. New York: The Modern Library.
Maguire, Keith. 1998. The Rise of Modern Taiwan. Brookfield: Ashgate.
Marsh, Robert M. 1979. Does Democracy Hinder Economic Development in the Latecomer Developing Nations? Comparative Social Research 2.
Matray, James I. 2002. Bunce and Jacobs: U.S. Occupation Advisors in Korea, 1946-1947. In Korea under the American Military Government, 1945- 1948, ed. Bonnie Oh, 61-78. London: Praeger.
Merrill, John. 1983. Internal Warfare in Korea, 1948-1950: The Local Settings of the Korean War. In Child of Conflict, ed. Bruce Cumings, 133-62. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Merrill, John. 1989. Korea: The Peninsula Origin of the War. Newark: University of Delaware Press.
Midgal, Joel S. 1988. Strong Societies, Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Myrdal, Gunnar. 1971. Asian Drama 1. New York: Pantheon Books.
Oliver, Robert T. 1948. Korea Report 1(1).
Özbudun, Ergun. 1981. The Nature of the Kemalist Political Regime. In Atatürk: Founder of a Modern State, eds. Ali Kazancigil and Ergun Özbudun, 79- 102. Hamden: Archon Books.
Reeve, W. D. 1963. The Republic of Korea. London: Oxford University Press.
Rokkan, Stein. 1975. Dimensions of State Formation and Nation-Building: A Possible Paradigm for Research on Variation within Europe. In Formation of National States, ed. Charles Tilly, 562-600. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rossiter, Clinton L. 1948. Constitutional Dictatorship: Crisis Government in Modern Democracies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rostow, Walter W. 1962. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. London: Cambridge University Press.
Rotberg, Robert I., ed. 2003. State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror.Washington: Brookings.
Roy, Denny. 2003. Taiwan: A Political History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Rubinstein, Murray A. 1994. The Taiwan Miracle. In The Other Taiwan: 1945 to the Present, ed. Murray A. Rubinstein, 3-14. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Rustow, Dankwart A. 1970. Atatürk as Founder of a State. In Philosophers and Kings: Studies in Leadership, ed. Dankwart A. Rustow, 208-47. New York: George Braziller.
Rustow, Dankwart A. 1981. Atatürk as an Institution-builder. In Atatürk: Founder of a Modern State, ed. Ali Kazancigil and Ergun Özbudun,57-77. Hamden: Archon Books.
Scalapino, Robert A. 1968. Elections in Prewar Japan. In Political Development in Modern Japan, ed. Robert E. Ward, 255-86. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Scalapino, Robert A., and Chong-Sik Lee. 1972. Communism in Korea. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Selznick, Philip. 1960. The Organizational Weapon: A Study of Bolshevik Strategy and Tactics. Glencoe: The Free Press.
Sharfman, Daphna. 1993. Living without Constitution: Civil Rights in Israel. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Shultz, George. 1992. South Korea: The Land of Three Miracles. Acceptance Speech for the 1992 Seoul Peace Prize, Seoul.
Smooha, Sammy. 1993. Part of the Problem or Part of the Solution: National Security and the Arab Minority. In National Security and Democracy in Israel, ed. Avner Yaniv, 105-27. Boulder: Rienner.
Stueck, William. 1981. The Road to Confrontation: American Policy toward China and Korea, 1947-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Suh, Dae Sook. 1967. The Korean Communist Movement, 1918-1948. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Tan, Patricia S. M., and Simon S. C. Tay. 2005. From Vulnerability to Success: The British Withdrawal from Singapore. In Making States Work: State Failure and the Crisis of Governance, eds. Simon Chesterman, Michael Ignatieff, and Ramesh Thakur, 252-70. New York: United Nations University.
Thomas, Raju G. C. 1996. Democracy, Security, and Development in India. New York: St. Martin.
Tien, Hung-mao. 1989. The Great Transition: Political and Social Change in the Republic of China. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.
Tilly, Charles, ed. 1975. The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Tilly, Charles. 1992. Coercion, Capital, and European States, 1990 1992. Oxford: Blackwell.
Tilly, Charles. 2007. Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
US National Archives. 1949. “Political Summary for March, 1949.” RG 59, CDF 1945—49, 895.00/4-1849.
Wang, Gungwu, ed. 2005. Nation-Building: Five Southeast Asian Histories. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Ward, Robert E., and Dankwart A. Rustow, eds. 1964. Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Yaniv, Avner, ed. 1993. National Security and Democracy in Israel. Boulder: Rienner