The term qishu that had a theoretical foundation in Neo-Confucian philosophy,especially the cosmological chronology, had been used in much Confucian literature starting from the early Joseon period. Until the middle of the seventeenth century, the term qishu and qishu theory sometimes faced strong rejection and criticism by court Confucians because of the fatalistic implications of qishu theory. However, beginning in the middle of the seventeenth century, the situation became more generous toward using the term qishu in court discussions or in the writings of Confucians, and the Joseon Confucians easily proposed qishu theory in order to interpret many incidents or occurrences such as portents or war. This change toward accepting qishu theory originated first from the publication and circulation of the cosmological chronology text complemented with Korean history by Joseon Confucians, and, secondly, from the invasion of Manchurian Qing army in 1667 and the humiliating defeat of the Joseon government. Using qishu theory, Joseon Confucians began to interpret the victories of “the barbarian Qing” and the fall of the Ming as the decline of zhonghua symbolizing human civilization with qishu. With qishu theory, those misfortunes that occurred in spite of human efforts were interpreted as reflecting a change in qishu, from a phase of yang qi domination to a phase of yin qi domination. Joseon Confucians thought that the rise of barbarian power and the gradual decline of civilization reflected a new phase of the great universal cycle entering into a decadent phase of yin qi. As an extension of this logic, the Joseon Confucians of the nineteenth century interpreted their contemporary situation of a world facing rising Western power and a declining East in terms of qishu theory and the cosmological chronology like their predecessors.
Huangji jingshi shu (Supreme rules governing the world). Sibu beiyao ed. Shanghai: Shangwuin shuguan. 1936.
Joseon wangzo sillok (The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty). 49 vols. Reprint ed. National Institute of Korean history.1958. Seoul: Tamgudang.
Xingli daquan (Great compendium on human nature and li). vol. 1 of Complete Works of Confucian Culture. Ed. The Editorial Committee of “The Complete Works of Confucian Culture.” Jinan: Shandong Friendship Press. 1989.
Zhuzi yulei (Classified conversations of Master Zhu, compiled in 1270). Modern punctuated ed. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju. 1994.
Hamel, Hendrik. 1668. Hamel pyoryugi (A Sea Drift Story of Hendrik Hamel). Trans. Kim Taejin. Seoul: Seohae munjip. 2003.
Hong, Gaehi. 1758. Gyeongse jijang. Kyu 37.
Jeong, Beomjo. 1867. Haejwa jip (Collected writings of Jeong Beomjo). vol. 240 of HMC. Ed. ITKC. Seoul: ITKC. 1999.
KHRA (Korean History Research Association). 2005. Joseon sidae saramdeuleun eoteoke salat’seolkka (What was life like for people in the Joseon period?). Seoul: Cheongnyonsa.
Kim, Jeonghwa. 2000. Dambae Iyagi (A Story about Tobacco). Seoul: Giho.
Kim, Yung Sik. 2000. The Natural Philosophy of Chu Hsi. American Philosophical Society.
Miura, Kunio. 2003. Jujawa Gi, geurigo Mom (Zhuzi, Qi, and Body).Trans. Yi Seung’yeon. Seoul: Yemun Seowon.
The Monopoly Bureau. 1982. Hanguk Jeonmaesa (The History of Monopoly on Tobacco and Ginseng in Korea). Seoul: The Monopoly Bureau.
Park, Seongrae. 2005. Hanguk gwahak sasangsa (The History of Science and Thought in Korea). Seoul: Youth book.
Seo, Myung’eung. 1774. Hwanggeuk ilwondo. Kyu 44.
Sin, Ikseong. 1634. Gangjeol seonsaeng hwangkeuk kyeongseseo dongsa bopyeon tongjae (Integrated version of Huangji jingshi shu complemented with Korean history). Kyujanggak document manage number 1337(hereafter, kyu 1337)
Song, Siyeol. 1787. Songja daejeon (Complete works of Master Song). vol. 115 of HMC. Ed. ITKC. Seoul: ITKC. 1995.
Wyatt, Don J. 1985. Chu Hsi’s Critique of Shao Yong: One Instance of the Stand against Fatalism. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 45(2: 99-95).
Yi, Dansang.1682. Jeong’gwanje jip (Collected writings of Yi Dansang). vol. 130 of HMC. Ed. ITKC. Seoul: ITKC. 1996.
Yi, Gyusang. 1935. Hansan sego (Collected works of the Yi family). Ed. Yi Sechan. Seoul: unknown.
Yi, Hangno. 1899. Hwaseo iip (Collected writings of Yi Hangno). vol. 304 of Hanguk Munjip Chong’gan (Complete Collections of Joeson Scholars’ writings, hereafter, HMC). 350 vols. Ed. Institute for the Translation of Korean Classics (hereafter. ITKC). Seoul: ITKC. 2004.
Yi, Yeonghak. 1990. “Hanguk gendae yeonchoeop’e daehan yeongu (A Study on the Tobacco Industry and Commerce in Modern Korea).”Ph.D. dissertation. Seoul National University.
Yu, Inseok. 1913. Ui’am jip (Collected writings of Yu Inseok). vol. 339 of HMC. Ed. ITKC. Seoul: ITKC. 2004.