and proposed the foundation of a scientific nationalism (Jeong Chang-ryeol 1992:142-43). Despite Sons advocacy of science, it is ironic that his theo-ry was also criticized as unscientific and abstract as were other theories ofnationalism due to his suggestion that nation is a transhistorical entity. Over Contested Terrain: Currents and Issues of Korean Studies 17117. Bourgeois nationalism, so to speak, established during the nation-state formation process inthe West, hailed social evolutionary theory as proposed by Herbert Spencer. According to thistheorys winner takes all and survival of the fittest principles, imperial invasion and colo-nial conquest is fully justified, and therefore there is no space for the necessity of colonial lib-eration movements in small and weak nations (Bak Chan-seung 1994:87).Despite significant differences, studies of history from a nationalist perspec-tive generally tended to be abstract and ideologically designed to resist Japaneseimperialism. Furthermore, much as theories of embryonic capitalism wereaimed to confirm western notions of modernity by examining Korean moderni-ty, these nationalist theories were fundamentally limited due to their common
This article examined the transformation of the characteristic or function of the Council of Nobles depending on the times. Such transformation was closely related to the political system or the attributes of the organization in those days. For instance, the characteristic of the Council of Southern Hall or Chongsa-dang in the early ancient period is considered to have had a very close correlation with the system of the Six Boards, which was the political system in those days. In other words, the stages of the system of the Six Boards’ method of administering the affairs of state were reflected in the Council of Southern Hall or Chongsa-dang. Similarly, the method of centralized political system centered on sovereign power was, of course, projected onto operating the Council of Southern Hall or Chongsa-dang in administering the affairs of state in stages after the middle of the ancient period. The content or structure of centralized political system focused on sovereign power changed slightly depending on the fluctuation in the inverse relationship between the sovereign and the vassals, and the transformation in the characteristic or function of these two councils was functionally related to this.